Myths & Facts:

Central Avenue, Perry Harvey Sr. Park, and the Bro Bowl

18 Myths about Central Avenue, Perry Harvey Sr. Park, and the Bro Bowl Addressed, Debunked, and Explained


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Photo: Panorama of the Scrub, circa 1926. Courtesy of the Burgert Brothers/ HCPLC


MYTHS & FACTS — FAQ FORMAT
FACT: Several factors led to the decline of Central Avenue. The “Scrub” area of Tampa, which bordered Central Avenue to the east, and was composed of African-American residents, was a topic of discussion for “slum” clearance as early as 1944. Original research presumed that the Central Avenue business area was included in urban renewal plans which began in the late 1950s.

FACT: Civil disturbances that ran from June 11-14, 1967 in and around Central Avenue led to widespread destruction of a majority of the businesses located there. This is evidence that many of these businesses had survived the first wave of urban renewal in the late 50s, and were destroyed due to looting, arson and other acts of destruction during the riots of 1967.

FACT: After suffering the damages of rioting, interstate expansion, the addition of the Jefferson Street extension, and the effects of desegregation, the remaining businesses that survived were financially severed from the rest of the City by 1973.

FACT: By the time that Central Avenue was razed in 1974, Moses White stated that it had become a “cesspool”. According to former Mayor Dick Greco, “It used to be such a beautiful place, but it had evolved into something terrible. It became a place where people from the projects went to get drunk. People were openly selling drugs on the corner, screwing up kids, stuff like that.”
FACT: After the aforementioned factors had taken their toll on what was once one of Tampa’s most grand of Avenues, few businesses remained. There were several vacant buildings in disrepair and many vacant lots.

FACT: In 1974, after all remaining businesses and parcels were purchased by use of federal grants, bulldozers steamrolled between Kay and Cass Streets, leveling everything in their path. Ultimately, all that remained were vacant, weed-filled plots of land.
FACT: Due to segregation, Central Avenue was once the only place that African-Americans could go to enjoy themselves in Tampa. “Central Avenue was the place to be,” said Fred Hearns, who frequented the area in the early 1960s. As civil rights progressed and desegregation was implemented, Central Avenue began to suffer economically. “They lost all their clientele,” said Hearns. “I was part of that group. We were so excited to be allowed to dine at restaurants on Dale Mabry that we abandoned the black businesses.”

FACT: Mayor Dick Greco worked with Alton White, Moses White’s son and member of Greco’s administration, to secure the federal grants needed to buy out property owners along Central Avenue and demolish the one -time epicenter of Tampa’s African-American community.
FACT: Despite many African-Americans opposing the Urban Renewal plan entitled “The Central Avenue Redevelopment Project”, it was passed by City Council in January 1970. On March 12, 1972, residents of the Central Avenue area presented the City with a petition to clean up Central Avenue, only to be told that the Federal redevelopment grant could not be used for this purpose. Despite the many emotional pleas that were expressed, demolition was completed in May 1974.

FACT: On December 11, 1975 Tampa City Council passed resolution 3692F that decided a park would be constructed on the former location of the Central Avenue Business District. Elements of the park, designed for the use of the adjoining Central Park Village and its residents included tennis courts, a bicycle path, a roller-skating rink, basketball courts ( adult and child-sized), a wading/splash fountain, and a skateboard rink. There was no mention of a history walk or any kind of monument to Central Avenue, by the City or the former residents of Central Park Village.

FACT: Although City officials were well aware that Central Avenue could have been saved, just as Ybor City had been in the mid-1960s, it was erased with no mention of its history in the park that replaced it. In addition, the only commemorative symbol of this once thriving area was a small marker placed by Moses White himself that has since been removed and relocated to Lowry Park.
FACT: Although many popular entertainers frequented the Central Avenue business district, performed in establishments such as the Blue Room, and stayed in nearby boarding houses, none of them resided in Central Avenue for any great length of time.

FACT: People such as Clara Frye, “Kid” Mason Fendall, Blanche Armwood, Moses White, Charlie Moon, Lee Davis, and several others are the true individuals who defined Central Avenue through their efforts and contributions, not their notoriety.
FACT: Many of the youth from the Central Park Village housing project have enjoyed skateboarding, roller-skating, and several other action sport activities for decades.

FACT: Martin Chambers, the young man whose tragic death at the hands of a police officer led to the riots of 1967 and the eventual creation of Perry Harvey Sr. Park, was an avid roller-skater. Essie Mae Reed, a former resident of Central Park Village had the following to say about Chambers in an interview conducted on May 15, 1994: “He was a very great skater, he could skate, oh beautiful-the older people would sit down and watch him skate on the playground. That old broke up cement over there, that’s where he skated. But he was good at it.”

FACT: When Joel Jackson first proposed Perry Harvey Sr. Park (originally titled Central Avenue Redevelopment Plan) to the City in 1975, he envisioned a state-of-the-art facility for the youth of the area, so they would not have to ride “old broke up cement”. Both facilities have been enjoyed by people of ALL colors for over 35 years.
FACT: Not until the construction of the Park was nearing completion in 1979, was it suggested by Mayor Bill Poe to Tampa City Council, that it be named in honor of Perry Harvey Sr. It was an honor well-deserved to a man who worked to better race-relations, and provide jobs for several poor African-Americans in the area.
FACT: The Bro Bowl was the first municipal, ride-at-your-own-risk, skateboard facility constructed in the State of Florida. It was built during what many consider “the Golden Age of Skateboarding” and was built as one of the last structures constructed during that period. It was revolutionary for its time. It was the creation of collaboration between Joel Jackson, Lang Pools, and the City of Tampa Parks Department. Design began in 1975 and final construction was completed in 1978.

FACT: The Bro Bowl is one of only four surviving concrete skateboard bowls from the 1970s, and is the only public facility that survives in its original form. It has been recognized by the Tampa Historic Preservation Commission and Florida State Department of Historical resources as historically significant. The Bro Bowl is currently under final review for addition to the National Register of Historic Places by the United States Department of the Interior.

FACT: Fred Hearns, the city’s former director of community affairs and the head of the citizen’s advisory committee for the redevelopment of Perry Harvey Sr. Park, stated the following when asked about Central Avenue history and the Bro Bowl: “What we have here is all this old history, and then we have this new history, which I have to admit I’m just learning.”
FACT: Although the Bro Bowl is nearly forty years old, and shows some signs of its age, it is in remarkable shape and is highly functional. The Bro Bowl possesses structural integrity that is superior to some modern skate parks. Per the original construction blueprints, it was constructed using 5 inch thick reinforced concrete and is rated at 3000 psi. Thousands of people enjoy it annually. It is now maintained by a small group of local skateboarders who paint and repair it on a semi-annual basis, after the City ceased maintaining it in 2006. Several claim the Bro Bowl as “their favorite spot to skate” even after several years of not visiting the structure.
FACT: As discussed in the City of Tampa Preservation Commission hearing on June 11, 2013, the Federal Department of Transportation has no plans to widen Orange Avenue within the next twenty years, nor is there funding for such a project. In addition, after its eligibility for addition to the National Register of Historic Places, avoidance of damage to the structure would have to be considered in said plans.
FACT: The Bro Bowl is connected in direct lineage to Central Avenue’s past, which dates back to the Civil War. As an element of Perry Harvey Sr. Park, which was created as an answer to the residents of the area’s request for a municipal park after the civil unrest of 1967, it shares the same history as other structures such as Cozy Corner, Lincoln Theatre, and Kid Mason’s Place. Although these structures served different purposes and are from different periods, they have all played a role in the history of Central Avenue.

FACT: At a mere 6,500 square feet (approximately), the Bro Bowl occupies a little over one percent of the 11 acres that Perry Harvey Sr. Park consists of. On top of this, redevelopment plans for the Park show nothing but landscaping, a field, and trees where the Bro Bowl now resides. The History Walk, Amphitheater, and other historically commemorative features of the design are proposed on the eastern edge of the Park, while the Bro Bowl lies on the west. With minimal design considerations, the Bro Bowl could easily be included with the other structures, at little or no cost.

FACT: Supporters of the Bro Bowl preservation effort have met with representatives of the African-American community in an effort of compromise between what many see as opposing positions. Despite offering several alternative concepts that could be considered to avoid demolishing the Bro Bowl, most representatives in support of the History Walk have yet to offer any form of compromise, continue to perpetuate a negative perspective on the topic of recognition for the Bro Bowl and are selective in their opinion of historical significance.
FACT: The proposed new skate park design at the north end of Perry Harvey Sr. Park will not retain the original features that make the Bro Bowl iconic. It is a modern design that is analogous with several other skate parks. Modern parks such as these are quite commonplace and several are located within an hour of Tampa.

FACT: The Bro Bowl is legendary and world-famous. It has been featured in many videos, magazines, newspapers, books, documentaries, and even made an appearance in the Tony Hawk Pro Skater video game.

FACT: It has been suggested that if it is demolished, pieces of the Bro Bowl be preserved and placed at the edge of the new skate park. The Bro Bowl is not merely an object of observation or admiration. It is a functional structure that serves as a piece of living history. To consider that burying pieces of it as a memorial is as ludicrous as the idea of demolishing the Columbia Restaurant and placing its tiles in the sidewalk where it once stood. There is no need to commemorate something, if preserving it is still a viable option.
FACT: The Bro Bowl does not share the same location as the proposal for the new skate park. There are nearly one million dollars allocated within the budget for the redevelopment of Perry Harvey Sr. Park for a skate park, restrooms and a shelter. A modern skate park could be constructed within this budget, while allowing for the preservation of the original Bro Bowl. As a side note, there is also a “rental space” planned within the new skate park area.

FACT: The City wishes to relocate the skateboard feature of the park to a less desirable location, where it will be out of sight. This, in some ways, parallels the situation the “Scrub” area of Downtown once faced. Skateboarders have been forced out of Downtown Tampa for decades. Now they will be isolated against the interstate, closer to noxious fumes. The City’s reasoning for the relocation is that the new skate park will be close to a new Meacham Middle School, which has yet to materialize after the demolition of the original structure, which was located within the Encore development, and was also listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005.
FACT: In a recent poll, 57.8% of those asked were in favor of preserving the Bro Bowl. More specifically, 36.6% believed the City should create the African-American history walk AND save the Bro Bowl.

FACT: Over 2200 supporters have signed a petition submitted to the City of Tampa that asks them to preserve the Bro Bowl.
FACT: Thousands of skateboarders, BMX riders, and other action sports enthusiasts of all ages frequent the Bro Bowl. Talents range from those who just ride down the hill to those who perform some of the most technical maneuvers in modern skateboarding. Many generations of Tampa residents have returned to the Bro Bowl with their children, after enjoying it through their own youth into adulthood.
FACT: Those who support preserving the Bro Bowl embrace and fully support the historical recognition of Central Avenue as one of Tampa’s most iconic areas. The Bro Bowl is a segment of the diverse, dynamic history that spans over 150 years. Despite the opinion of some, it has played an integral role in the development of Central Avenue history.
FACT: Some believe the Bro Bowl is obsolete and should be replaced by a new, more modern skate park.

FACT: Some of those who have spoke in support of constructing a new skate park at Perry Harvey Sr. Park are paid consultants who have been compensated to offer their opinion opposing the preservation of the Bro Bowl. In addition, they have actually been involved with non-disclosure agreements that have withheld the City’s plans to demolish the Bro Bowl and construct the new facility from the public until recently.

FACT: According to City of Tampa Resolution #2011-918, dated November 3, 2011, Fred Hearns, Team Pain, and the Skatepark of Tampa were paid a total of $22,400 for their consultative services for the redevelopment of Perry Harvey Sr. Park. This accounted for more than 10% of the total contract.
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MYTHS & FACTS — LONG FORMAT


MYTH #1:
Central Avenue was destroyed in its entirety by Urban Renewal in the early 1970s.

FACT: Several factors led to the decline of Central Avenue. The “Scrub” area of Tampa, which bordered Central Avenue to the east, and was composed of African-American residents, was a topic of discussion for “slum” clearance as early as 1944. Original research presumed that the Central Avenue business area was included in urban renewal plans which began in the late 1950s.

FACT: Civil disturbances that ran from June 11-14, 1967 in and around Central Avenue led to widespread destruction of a majority of the businesses located there. This is evidence that many of these businesses had survived the first wave of urban renewal in the late 50s, and were destroyed due to looting, arson and other acts of destruction during the riots of 1967.

FACT: After suffering the damages of rioting, interstate expansion, the addition of the Jefferson Street extension, and the effects of desegregation, the remaining businesses that survived were financially severed from the rest of the City by 1973.

FACT: By the time that Central Avenue was razed in 1974, Moses White stated that it had become a “cesspool”. According to former Mayor Dick Greco, “It used to be such a beautiful place, but it had evolved into something terrible. It became a place where people from the projects went to get drunk. People were openly selling drugs on the corner, screwing up kids, stuff like that.”



MYTH #2:
The Central Avenue business area was thriving at the time of its demolition.

FACT: After the aforementioned factors had taken their toll on what was once one of Tampa’s most grand of Avenues, few businesses remained. There were several vacant buildings in disrepair and many vacant lots.

FACT: In 1974, after all remaining businesses and parcels were purchased by use of federal grants, bulldozers steamrolled between Kay and Cass Streets, leveling everything in their path. Ultimately, all that remained were vacant, weed-filled plots of land.



MYTH #3:
The entire African-American community supported preservation of the Central Avenue business district.

FACT: Due to segregation, Central Avenue was once the only place that African-Americans could go to enjoy themselves in Tampa. “Central Avenue was the place to be,” said Fred Hearns, who frequented the area in the early 1960s. As civil rights progressed and desegregation was implemented, Central Avenue began to suffer economically. “They lost all their clientele,” said Hearns. “I was part of that group. We were so excited to be allowed to dine at restaurants on Dale Mabry that we abandoned the black businesses.”

FACT: Mayor Dick Greco worked with Alton White, Moses White’s son and member of Greco’s administration, to secure the federal grants needed to buy out property owners along Central Avenue and demolish the one -time epicenter of Tampa’s African-American community.



MYTH #4:
”The city’s plan has always been to honor the rich history of Central Avenue’s black entertainment and business district with history walks and monuments.”

FACT: Despite many African-Americans opposing the Urban Renewal plan entitled “The Central Avenue Redevelopment Project”, it was passed by City Council in January 1970. On March 12, 1972, residents of the Central Avenue area presented the City with a petition to clean up Central Avenue, only to be told that the Federal redevelopment grant could not be used for this purpose. Despite the many emotional pleas that were expressed, demolition was completed in May 1974.

FACT: On December 11, 1975 Tampa City Council passed resolution 3692F that decided a park would be constructed on the former location of the Central Avenue Business District. Elements of the park, designed for the use of the adjoining Central Park Village and its residents included tennis courts, a bicycle path, a roller-skating rink, basketball courts ( adult and child-sized), a wading/splash fountain, and a skateboard rink. There was no mention of a history walk or any kind of monument to Central Avenue, by the City or the former residents of Central Park Village.

FACT: Although City officials were well aware that Central Avenue could have been saved, just as Ybor City had been in the mid-1960s, it was erased with no mention of its history in the park that replaced it. In addition, the only commemorative symbol of this once thriving area was a small marker placed by Moses White himself that has since been removed and relocated to Lowry Park.



MYTH #5:
Ray Charles, Ella Fitzgerald, B.B King, Hank Ballard, and several other African-American entertainers were the celebrities of Central Avenue.

FACT: Although many popular entertainers frequented the Central Avenue business district, performed in establishments such as the Blue Room, and stayed in nearby boarding houses, none of them resided in Central Avenue for any great length of time.

FACT: People such as Clara Frye, “Kid” Mason Fendall, Blanche Armwood, Moses White, Charlie Moon, Lee Davis, and several others are the true individuals who defined Central Avenue through their efforts and contributions, not their notoriety.



MYTH #6:
Skate culture and African-American culture are two separate entities.

FACT: Many of the youth from the Central Park Village housing project have enjoyed skateboarding, roller-skating, and several other action sport activities for decades.

FACT: Martin Chambers, the young man whose tragic death at the hands of a police officer led to the riots of 1967 and the eventual creation of Perry Harvey Sr. Park, was an avid roller-skater. Essie Mae Reed, a former resident of Central Park Village had the following to say about Chambers in an interview conducted on May 15, 1994: “He was a very great skater, he could skate, oh beautiful-the older people would sit down and watch him skate on the playground. That old broke up cement over there, that’s where he skated. But he was good at it.”

FACT: When Joel Jackson first proposed Perry Harvey Sr. Park (originally titled Central Avenue Redevelopment Plan) to the City in 1975, he envisioned a state-of-the-art facility for the youth of the area, so they would not have to ride “old broke up cement”. Both facilities have been enjoyed by people of ALL colors for over 35 years.



MYTH #7:
Perry Harvey Sr. Park was originally built to honor the founder of the Longshoremen’s Association.

FACT: Not until the construction of the Park was nearing completion in 1979, was it suggested by Mayor Bill Poe to Tampa City Council, that it be named in honor of Perry Harvey Sr. It was an honor well-deserved to a man who worked to better race-relations, and provide jobs for several poor African-Americans in the area.



MYTH #8:
The Bro Bowl is not historic, nor culturally or architecturally significant.

FACT: The Bro Bowl was the first municipal, ride-at-your-own-risk, skateboard facility constructed in the State of Florida. It was built during what many consider “the Golden Age of Skateboarding” and was built as one of the last structures constructed during that period. It was revolutionary for its time. It was the creation of collaboration between Joel Jackson, Lang Pools, and the City of Tampa Parks Department. Design began in 1975 and final construction was completed in 1978.

FACT: The Bro Bowl is one of only four surviving concrete skateboard bowls from the 1970s, and is the only public facility that survives in its original form. It has been recognized by the Tampa Historic Preservation Commission and Florida State Department of Historical resources as historically significant. The Bro Bowl is currently under final review for addition to the National Register of Historic Places by the United States Department of the Interior.

FACT: Fred Hearns, the city’s former director of community affairs and the head of the citizen’s advisory committee for the redevelopment of Perry Harvey Sr. Park, stated the following when asked about Central Avenue history and the Bro Bowl: “What we have here is all this old history, and then we have this new history, which I have to admit I’m just learning.”



MYTH #9:
The Bro Bowl is a “piece of junk”.

FACT: Although the Bro Bowl is nearly forty years old, and shows some signs of its age, it is in remarkable shape and is highly functional. The Bro Bowl possesses structural integrity that is superior to some modern skate parks. Per the original construction blueprints, it was constructed using 5 inch thick reinforced concrete and is rated at 3000 psi. Thousands of people enjoy it annually. It is now maintained by a small group of local skateboarders who paint and repair it on a semi-annual basis, after the City ceased maintaining it in 2006. Several claim the Bro Bowl as “their favorite spot to skate” even after several years of not visiting the structure.



MYTH #10:
The Bro Bowl will eventually be demolished due to widening Orange Avenue.


FACT: As discussed in the City of Tampa Preservation Commission hearing on June 11, 2013, the Federal Department of Transportation has no plans to widen Orange Avenue within the next twenty years, nor is there funding for such a project. In addition, after its eligibility for addition to the National Register of Historic Places, avoidance of damage to the structure would have to be considered in said plans.



MYTH #11:
The Bro Bowl stands in the way of the City’s plans to honor the history of Central Avenue.

FACT: The Bro Bowl is connected in direct lineage to Central Avenue’s past, which dates back to the Civil War. As an element of Perry Harvey Sr. Park, which was created as an answer to the residents of the area’s request for a municipal park after the civil unrest of 1967, it shares the same history as other structures such as Cozy Corner, Lincoln Theatre, and Kid Mason’s Place. Although these structures served different purposes and are from different periods, they have all played a role in the history of Central Avenue.

FACT: At a mere 6,500 square feet (approximately), the Bro Bowl occupies a little over one percent of the 11 acres that Perry Harvey Sr. Park consists of. On top of this, redevelopment plans for the Park show nothing but landscaping, a field, and trees where the Bro Bowl now resides. The History Walk, Amphitheater, and other historically commemorative features of the design are proposed on the eastern edge of the Park, while the Bro Bowl lies on the west. With minimal design considerations, the Bro Bowl could easily be included with the other structures, at little or no cost.

FACT: Supporters of the Bro Bowl preservation effort have met with representatives of the African-American community in an effort of compromise between what many see as opposing positions. Despite offering several alternative concepts that could be considered to avoid demolishing the Bro Bowl, most representatives in support of the History Walk have yet to offer any form of compromise, continue to perpetuate a negative perspective on the topic of recognition for the Bro Bowl and are selective in their opinion of historical significance.



MYTH #12:
The proposed new skate park will be better than the original Bro Bowl, and commemorate its history.

FACT: The proposed new skate park design at the north end of Perry Harvey Sr. Park will not retain the original features that make the Bro Bowl iconic. It is a modern design that is analogous with several other skate parks. Modern parks such as these are quite commonplace and several are located within an hour of Tampa.

FACT: The Bro Bowl is legendary and world-famous. It has been featured in many videos, magazines, newspapers, books, documentaries, and even made an appearance in the Tony Hawk Pro Skater video game.

FACT: It has been suggested that if it is demolished, pieces of the Bro Bowl be preserved and placed at the edge of the new skate park. The Bro Bowl is not merely an object of observation or admiration. It is a functional structure that serves as a piece of living history. To consider that burying pieces of it as a memorial is as ludicrous as the idea of demolishing the Columbia Restaurant and placing its tiles in the sidewalk where it once stood. There is no need to commemorate something, if preserving it is still a viable option.



MYTH #13:
The Bro Bowl must be demolished to construct a new skateboard facility at the north end of Perry Harvey Sr. Park.

FACT: The Bro Bowl does not share the same location as the proposal for the new skate park. There are nearly one million dollars allocated within the budget for the redevelopment of Perry Harvey Sr. Park for a skate park, restrooms and a shelter. A modern skate park could be constructed within this budget, while allowing for the preservation of the original Bro Bowl. As a side note, there is also a “rental space” planned within the new skate park area.

FACT: The City wishes to relocate the skateboard feature of the park to a less desirable location, where it will be out of sight. This, in some ways, parallels the situation the “Scrub” area of Downtown once faced. Skateboarders have been forced out of Downtown Tampa for decades. Now they will be isolated against the interstate, closer to noxious fumes. The City’s reasoning for the relocation is that the new skate park will be close to a new Meacham Middle School, which has yet to materialize after the demolition of the original structure, which was located within the Encore development, and was also listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005.



MYTH #14:
The “consensus” favors demolition of the Bro Bowl and construction of a new skate park.

FACT: In a recent poll, 57.8% of those asked were in favor of preserving the Bro Bowl. More specifically, 36.6% believed the City should create the African-American history walk AND save the Bro Bowl.

FACT: Over 2200 supporters have signed a petition submitted to the City of Tampa that asks them to preserve the Bro Bowl.



MYTH #15:
The Bro Bowl is only used by a handful of old skateboarders who choose to live in the past, and have no concept of the sport’s modern form.

FACT: Thousands of skateboarders, BMX riders, and other action sports enthusiasts of all ages frequent the Bro Bowl. Talents range from those who just ride down the hill to those who perform some of the most technical maneuvers in modern skateboarding. Many generations of Tampa residents have returned to the Bro Bowl with their children, after enjoying it through their own youth into adulthood.



MYTH #16:
Supporters of the preservation effort of the Bro Bowl are in opposition to the recognition of the African-American history of Central Avenue.

FACT: Those who support preserving the Bro Bowl embrace and fully support the historical recognition of Central Avenue as one of Tampa’s most iconic areas. The Bro Bowl is a segment of the diverse, dynamic history that spans over 150 years. Despite the opinion of some, it has played an integral role in the development of Central Avenue history.



MYTH #17:
All skateboarding interests share the same position with regard to preserving the Bro Bowl.

FACT: Some believe the Bro Bowl is obsolete and should be replaced by a new, more modern skate park.

FACT: Some of those who have spoke in support of constructing a new skate park at Perry Harvey Sr. Park are paid consultants who have been compensated to offer their opinion opposing the preservation of the Bro Bowl. In addition, they have actually been involved with non-disclosure agreements that have withheld the City’s plans to demolish the Bro Bowl and construct the new facility from the public until recently.

FACT: According to City of Tampa Resolution #2011-918, dated November 3, 2011, Fred Hearns, Team Pain, and the Skatepark of Tampa were paid a total of $22,400 for their consultative services for the redevelopment of Perry Harvey Sr. Park. This accounted for more than 10% of the total contract.
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SELECTED SOURCES

Anthony, Otis R.: African Americans in Florida History Project, University of South Florida, 1994.
Anthony, Otis R., African Americans in Florida Oral History Project, Oral History Program, Florida Studies Center, University of South Florida, Tampa Library.
Author Unknown: Florida’s Historic Black Public Schools Multiple Properties Submission, Wikipedia, last updated 6/2/13.
Author Unknown, “Central Ave. Park Scheduled For Completion In Late May,” The Florida Sentinel-Bulletin, 3/10/79.
Author Unknown: “The ‘Big O’ skateboard pipe reopens,” CBC News, Montreal, 8/19/13.
Baber,Yvette M., Urban Renewal Policy and Community Change. Practicing Anthropology, Volume 20, Number 1, Winter 1998.
Bruffett, Shannon: Interview with Joel E. Jackson at Perry Harvey Sr. Park, 8/25/13.
City of Tampa Metropolitan Development Agency, Division of Planning, a history of the MDA, December 1973.
City of Tampa Metropolitan Development Agency, Division of Planning, Housing: Neighborhood Decline: Housing Analysis and Program Strategy, January 1976
City of Tampa Preservation Commission Hearing, City Hall, Tampa, Florida 6/11/13.
Crews, Leon B.: “Mediator Brings ‘Bro Bowl’ Opponents Together To Talk,” The Florida Sentinel Bulletin, 8/5/2013 Cuyahoga Wrecking Corporation of Florida: Demolition Contract: Central Avenue Planned Variation Project Neighborhood Development Program, Area No. 4, February 5, 1974
Danielson, Richard: “In a first, opponents in debate over Tampa’s Bro Bowl meet to seek common ground,” The Tampa Tribune, 8/2/13.
Danielson, Richard: “Tampa poll: Most oppose using taxpayer money for Tampa Bay Rays stadium,” Tampa Bay Times, 9/9/13.
Greenbaum, Susan, “Central Avenue Legacies: African American Heritage In Tampa, Florida.” Practicing Anthropology,Volume 20, Number 1, Winter 1998.
Guzzo, Paul, “Central Avenue Riots: The Real Story,” Cigar City Magazine, Issue 22, 2009.
Hayes, Gwendolyn, “Mayor to Propose Central Avenue Park Be Named After Perry Harvey, Sr.” The Florida Sentinel-Bulletin, 8/25/79
Kimley-Horn and Associates, JPA, RSA, Fred Hearns, Team Pain, QCA: Perry Harvey Park Phasing Draft, 1/29/13.
Morelli, Keith: “Meacham School Razed,” The Tampa Tribune, 11/30/2007.
Nipps, Emily: “Colliding Cultures,” Tampa Bay Times, 11/6/06.
Patrick, Craig: “One city’s ‘junk’ could soon be a national treasure,” Fox 13 News, 7/25/13
Perry, Mitch: “Buckhorn unveils $831 million budget for Tampa,” Creative Loafing, 7/25/13.
Porrata, Tito: Telephone and in-person interviews, May 2013.
Scudder, Charles: “Tampa’s Bro Bowl grips spot in skateboarding’s start,” Tampa Bay Times, 8/11/13.
Skateboarding Heritage Foundation: “Petitioning The City of Tampa, Florida: Preserve the Perry Harvey Sr. Park Skateboard Bowl/ Bro Bowl,” Change.Org, last updated 9/15/13.
Tampa City Council Resolution 3692-F, 12/11/75.
Tampa City Council Resolution 2011-918, 11/3/11.